Science hasn’t fallen from the skies. That it has developed purely out of its own internal methodological impulses is patently wrong. It has all along had to fight against extra-scientific ideology. In colonial India, in mid-19th century Europe, in today’s America and America-eclipsed India, everywhere science had to labour through every kind of ideological hurdle; and the process goes on. Ideologies such as creationism, hindutwavad, Islamic fundamentalism, some particular ‘lines’ of some particular communist parties, the medley of post-modern philosophies and many others have ever been trying to lead science astray. This series of ideological invasions and the multi-dimensional dialectics of this continuous conflict form the subject of the investigation of this book, which is mainly on the look out not for answers, but for questions.